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Goat'

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The commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug Metformin has it’s origins in a herb used as a folk remedy for hundreds of years.  Galega
officinalis
, also called Goat’s Rue, French Lilac, French Honeysuckle, Pestilenzkraut, Spanish Sanfoin, Professor-weed, False Indigo or Italian Fitch is a member of the pea family (leguminosae).

History

Goat’s rue has been used to treat the symptoms of diabetes since medieval times.  It has also been used as a diuretic (substance which removes fluid) and galactagogue (substance which increases the flow of breast milk), from whence both it’s botanical name and one of its common names are derived.  During times of plague, it was used as a diaphoretic (to increase sweating).  Goat’s rue or an extract of it can be applied to wounds to help them heal faster, likely due to its antibacterial effects.  It has also long been used to increase the production of milk in ruminant farm animals such as goats and cows.

Chemistry

The compound within goat’s rue which lowers blood sugar is galegine or to be more chemically accurate, isoamylene guanidine.  Some of the other constituents in goat’s rue include hydroxygalegine, peganine, vasicinone and other quinazoline alkaloids, luteolin, carnavine, tannins, saponins, a bitter principle, flavonoids, flavone glycosides, flavonol triglycosides kaempferol and quercetin derivatives, norterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid glycosides, including a rare dearabinosyl pneumonanthoside.

Medicinal Uses

In addition to lowering blood sugar through a variety of mechanisms, goat’s rue also stimulates digestive enzymes, increases fat utilisation leading to weight loss, inhibits the transport and absorption of glucose across intestinal epithelial cells, thins the blood through inhibiting platelet aggregation, has a liver-protectant effect and antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus subtilis and Serratia marcescens.  You might recognise some of those names – S. aureus is commonly known as “golden staph” and many strains are now resistant to many of the antibiotics in our pharmaceutical arsenal.  Y. enterocolitica comes from the same genus as Y. pestis the bacteria which was responsible for the plagues – bubonic, pneumonitic and septicaemic.  Goat’s rue is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Whilst the whole plant has been used medicinally and in fact all parts of the plant contain guanidine derivatives, it would be safest to use only the flowers and seeds medicinally.  Dosage is 2 grams or about half a teaspoon steeped in boiling water for 5-10 minutes to create a herbal infusion.  Alternatively an alcoholic extract might be prescribed by a professional herbalist.

Botany

Goat’s rue is an attractive shrub with white, lilac, pale blue or pink flowers which can grow to around 1 metre in height or 3 feet.  It is a hardy perennial, originating in southern Europe & western Asia.  It thrives in temperate regions, preferring deep, moist, well-drained soil in a sunny or partially shaded location within the garden.  It has a dense and spreading root system which sends up many hollow stems which bear a profusion of pea-like leaves and pastel flowers, though the plant has no fragrance, unless crushed when it emits a malodorous scent.

More Information:

Atanasov AT, Tchorbanov B. Anti-platelet fraction from Galega officinalis L. inhibits platelet aggregation. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2002, 5(4): 229-234

Atanasov A, Tchorbanov B. On the chemical composition of a fraction from Galega officinalis L. with anti-aggregating activity on platelet. Dokladi na Bulgarskata Akademiya na Naukite. 2003, 56(6): 31-34

Atanasov AT, Spasov V. Inhibiting effect of desalted extract from Galega officinalis L. on platelet aggregation. Folia Med (Plovdiv) . 1999;41:46-50.

Atanasov AT, Spasov V. Inhibiting and disaggregating effect of gel-filtered Galega officinalis L. herbal extract on platelet aggregation. J Ethnopharmacol . 2000;69:235-240.

Bailey CJ, Day, C. Metformin: its botanical background. Practical Diabetes Int 2004;21:115-7.

Bailey CJ, Campbell IW, Chan JCN, Davidson JA, Howlett HCS, Ritz P (eds). 2007. Metformin: the Gold Standard. A Scientific handbook; Chichester: Wiley. Chapter 1: Galegine and antidiabetic plants.

Barthel A, Reuter G. Biochemistry and physiology of isoprenoid guanidines, especially (4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)guanidine in Galega officinalis . Pharmazie . 1968;23:26-33.

Bisset N, ed. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals . Stuttgart, Germany: CRC Press. 1994;220-221.

Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs . Austin, TX: American Botanical Council. 1998;332.

Champavier Y, Comte G, Vercauteren J, Allais DP,  Chulia AJ. Norterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid glucosides from Juniperus phoenicea and Galega officinalis. Phytochemistry. 1999, 50(7): 1219-1223

Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants . New York, NY: DK Publishing. 1996;212.

Champavier Y, Allais DP, Chulia AJ, Kaouadji M. Acetylated and non-acetylated flavonol triglycosides from Galega officinalis. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2000, 48(2): 281-282

Champavier Y, Comte G, Vercauteren J, Allais D, Chulia A. Norterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid glucosides from Juniperus phoenicea and Galega officinalis . Phytochemistry . 1999;50:1219-1223.

Desvages G, Olomucki M. Guanidine derivatives of Galega officinalis ; galegine and hydroxygalegine. Bull Soc Chim Fr . 1969;9:3229-3232.

Fukunaga T, Nishiya K, Takeya K, Itokawa H. Studies on the constituents of goat’s rue (Galega officinalis L.). Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1987, 35(4): 1610-1614

Heiss H. Clinical and experimental contribution on the question of the lactogenic effect of Galega officinalis [in German]. Wien Med Wochenschr . 1968;118:546-548.

Laakso I, Virkajarvi P, Airaksinen H, Varis E. Determination of vasicine and related alkaloids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatrogr . 1990;505:424-428.

Lemus I, García R, Delvillar E, Knop G. Hypoglycaemic activity of four plants used in Chilean popular medicine. Phytotherapy Research. 1999, 13(2): 91-94

Leonard N. Synthesis of 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-cis-2-butenyl)guanidine, the naturally occurring hydroxygalegine. J Chem Soc Chem Commun . 1972;3:133-134.

Neef H, Augustijns P, Declercq P, Declerck PJ, Laekeman G. Inhibitory effects of Galega officinalis on glucose transport across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Letters. 1996, 6(2): 86-89

Osmanova NA, Pryakhina NI, Protasov EA, Alekseeva-Popova NV. Element and amino acid composition of the above-ground parts of Galega officinalis L. and G. orientalis Lam. Rastitel’nye Resursy. 2003, 39(2): 72-75

Palit P, Furman BL, Gray AI. Novel weight-reducing activity of Galega officinalis in mice. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 1999, 51(11): 1313-1319

Petricic J, Kalodera Z. Galegin in the goat’s rue herb: its toxicity, antidiabetic activity and content determination. Acta Pharmaceutica Jugoslavica. 1982, 32(3): 219-223

Pundarikakshudu K, Patel JK, Bodar MS, Deans SG. Anti-bacterial activity of Galega officinalis L. (Goat’s Rue). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2001, 77(1): 111-112

Reuter G, Barthel A, Steiniger J. Metabolism of guanidino-acetic acid in Galega officinalis L. Pharmazie . 1969;24:358.

Rosca M, Tamas M. Studies on Galegae Herba products. Farmacia (Bucharest) . 1988;36:217-221.

Schafer J, Stein M. On the variability of substances contained in the goat’s rue ( Galega officinalis L.) [in German]. Naturwissenschaften . 1967;54:205-206.

Shevchuk O. Flavonoids in flowers of Galega officinalis . Khim Biol . 1967;29:544-547.

Shukyurov DZ, Guseinov DY, Yuzbashinskaya PA. Effect of preparations from rue leaves on carbohydrate metabolism in a normal state and during alloxan diabetes. Doklady – Akademiya Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR. 1974, 30(10): 58-60

Stosic D, Bogavac P, Panov I. Medicinal plant raw materials with antihyperglycemic activity. Arh Farm . 1993;43:35-41.

Witters LA. The blooming of the French lilac. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2001, 108(8): 1105-1107

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